Ageing Damages the Brain's Support Cells
Credit: A horizontal slice of the head of an adult female, from the Visible Human project. For this project, a cadaver was frozen and then sliced into thin sections, which were photographed at high resolution. This section shows the cerebral cortex and underlying white matter. Credit: This image was created by a US government project in the National Library of Medicine, a branch of NIH. As government work, it is in the public domain. The original image was modified by user:Looie496 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Ageing can cause damage to support cells in the white matter, which in turn may lead to damage in the grey matter of the hippocampus, finds a new study by Cardiff University.
The discovery gives researchers a new area to focus on in the search for treatments that can protect cognitive function.
Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, from Cardiff University’s Brain Imaging Research Centre (CUBRIC), said: “The brain is made up of grey and white matter. While grey matter contains neuronal cells, which perform computations in our brain, the white matter contains connections and support cells that help the communication between different areas.
“Our new study not only confirms that aging leads to both grey matter decline in the hippocampus and white matter decline in the surrounding area, but also reveals the causal relationship between the two.
“Using a method called mediation analysis, we discovered that ageing of the white matter was accounting for ageing of hippocampal grey matter and not the other way around. Our results suggest that damage to the support cells may affect tissue health in the hippocampus, a region important for memory and involved in Alzheimer’s disease," said Dr Metzler-Baddeley.
She continued, "This is an exciting find. If hard-working support cells in the white matter start to misfunction with age, then therapies that protect these support cells may aid in the fight against the damage that ageing can do to our cognitive ability."
The study, which looked at the brains of 166 healthy volunteers, was carried out using state-of-the-art brain imaging techniques at CUBRIC and was jointly funded by the Alzheimer’s Society and the BRACE Alzheimer’s charity.
This article has been republished from materials provided by Cardiff University. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.
Reference: Metzler-Baddeley, C., Mole, J. P., Sims, R., Fasano, F., Evans, J., Jones, D. K., … Baddeley, R. J. (2019). Fornix white matter glia damage causes hippocampal gray matter damage during age-dependent limbic decline. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1060. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37658-5
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