Brain receptor found to significantly affect cocaine addiction
News Jun 18, 2015
Discovery of new neural pathway may lead to preventing relapses in addicts
Researchers at the University at Buffalo (UB) have discovered a previously unknown neural pathway that can regulate changes made in the brain due to cocaine use, providing new insight into the molecular basis of cocaine addiction.
“Addiction is a life-long affliction manifested by episodes of relapse, despite prolonged abstinence,” says Amy Gancarz, PhD, lead author of the study, which was published this month in an Advance Online Publication in Nature Neuroscience. “There is a need to more fully understand the long-term molecular changes in the brain involved in drug craving and relapse.”
Gancarz, a former postdoctoral associate with the UB Research Institute on Addictions (RIA), worked on the study under the direction of senior author David Dietz, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology in UB’s School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. Dietz is also a faculty member in UB’s Neuroscience Program and an affiliated scientist with RIA.
The study found that by manipulating the activity of Activin receptors — receptors found in the brain — the researchers were able to increase or decrease cocaine-taking and relapse behavior in animal models. The study focused, specifically, on Activin receptors in regions of the brain that are involved in pleasure and reward.
“There are changes in the brain caused by drug use that occur and persist, but are only unmasked after withdrawal from a drug — in this case, cocaine,” Dietz says. “Cocaine use alters the connections between certain neurons through changes in the shape of the cells.”
The researchers discovered that the Activin pathway controls the ability of cocaine to induce this change in the neurons and determined that the Activin receptor may control this response to cocaine by regulating the expression of a number of genes.
“Understanding this critical pathway will help us pursue new directions in potential pharmacological and gene therapies to prevent drug relapses,” Dietz says. “If we can control this pathway, we may be able to help prevent relapses in people who have been abstinent from cocaine.”
Note: Material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.
Dietz DM et al. Activin receptor signaling regulates cocaine-primed behavioral and morphological plasticity. Nature Neuroscience, Published Online June 1 2015. doi: 10.1038/nn.4036
All in a Droplet: Atomic Resolution of ALS Protein ResolvedNews
Researchers have described atom-by-atom changes in a family of proteins linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a group of brain disorders known as frontotemporal dementia and degenerative diseases of muscle and bone.READ MORE
Pupil Size Couples to Cortical States to Protect Deep Sleep StabilityNews
Researchers have found that mice pupil size fluctuates during sleep. They also show that pupil size is a reliable indicator of sleep states.READ MORE
A Place to Think: Persistent neuronal activity in human prefrontal cortex links perception and actionNews
Neuroscientists have tracked the progress of a thought through the brain, showing clearly how the prefrontal cortex at the front of the brain coordinates activity to help us act in response to a perception.READ MORE