Mechanisms to reduce epileptic seizures, and restore brain function and memory following traumatic brain injury identified
News Dec 18, 2015
University of Texas (UT) Southwestern Medical Center researchers have found that halting production of new neurons in the brain following traumatic brain injury can help reduce resulting epileptic seizures, cognitive decline, and impaired memory.
Injury to the brain stimulates the production of new neurons, but these new cells are sometimes hyperexcitable, disrupting neural circuits and causing recurring seizures, researchers with UT Southwestern’s Texas Institute for Brain Injury and Repair report in Nature Communications.
Effectively stopping the process in genetically modified mice resulted in fewer seizures. In addition, eliminating the development of new neurons appeared to reduce cognitive decline and impairment of memory, common effects of seizures.
“Understanding the mechanisms that promote aberrant neurogenesis caused by traumatic brain injury and subsequent seizures may open new therapeutic avenues to prevent epilepsy and associated memory problems caused by impact,” said senior author Dr. Jenny Hsieh, Associate Professor of Molecular Biology and a member of the UT Southwestern Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine.
Halting development of new neurons resulted in a roughly 40 percent reduction in seizure frequency in the mice, but did not alter the duration of individual seizures. However, the researchers found that stopping neurogenesis before the development of seizures had a long-lasting effect, suppressing chronic seizure frequency for nearly one year, even at a late stage of the disease.
An estimated 3 million Americans and 65 million people worldwide currently live with epilepsy, costing an estimated $15.5 billion annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Traumatic brain injury accounts for 20 percent of epileptic seizures, but how or why recurring seizures develop after a severe brain injury has thus far been unclear. Some drugs can help control seizures, but there is no drug to prevent or cure epilepsy.
Degenerative diseases of the heart, brain, and other tissues represent the largest cause of death and disability in the world, affecting virtually everyone over the age of 40 and accounting for the lion’s share of health care costs. Regenerative medicine represents a new frontier in science, which seeks to understand the mechanistic basis of tissue aging, repair, and regeneration and to leverage this knowledge to improve human health.
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Neurons in the human brain receive electrical signals from thousands of other cells, and long neural extensions called dendrites play a critical role in incorporating all of that information. Using hard-to-obtain samples of human brain tissue, MIT neuroscientists have now discovered that human dendrites have different electrical properties from those of other species.