This Week on NeuroScientistNews: 17 August – 21 August
News Aug 21, 2015
Retinal changes and schizophrenia; brain-in-a-dish; visualizing the basal ganglia, and more.
Schizophrenia is associated with structural and functional alterations of the visual system, including specific structural changes in the eye. Tracking such changes may provide new measures of risk for, and progression of the disease, according to a literature review published online in the journal Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, authored by researchers at New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai and Rutgers University.
New research has identified the mechanisms that trigger disruption in the brain's communication channels linked to symptoms in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. The University of Bristol study, published in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, could have important implications for treating symptoms of brain disorders.
The brain organoid, engineered by Ohio State University researchers from adult human skin cells, is the most complete human brain model yet developed, said Rene Anand, professor of biological chemistry and pharmacology at Ohio State. The lab-grown brain, about the size of a pencil eraser, has an identifiable structure and contains 99 percent of the genes present in the human fetal brain. Such a system will enable ethical and more rapid and accurate testing of experimental drugs before the clinical trial stage and advance studies of genetic and environmental causes of central nervous system disorders.
Certain diseases, like Parkinson's and Huntingdon's disease, are associated with damage to the pathways between the brain's basal ganglia regions. The basal ganglia sits at the base of the brain and is responsible for, among other things, coordinating movement. It is made up of four interconnected, deep brain structures that imaging techniques have previously been unable to visualize.
Scientists have revealed never-before-seen details of how our brain sends rapid-fire messages between its cells. They mapped the 3-D atomic structure of a two-part protein complex that controls the release of neurotransmitter signaling chemicals from brain cells. Understanding how cells release those signals in less than one-thousandth of a second could help launch a new wave of research on drugs for treating brain disorders.
Molecules in Spit Could Help Diagnose ConcussionsNews
Diagnosing a concussion can sometimes be a guessing game, but clues taken from small molecules in saliva may be able to help diagnose and predict the duration of concussions in children, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers.READ MORE
Elpis BioMed Closes Funding Round to Commercialise Novel Technology Platform for Generating Human Cell TypesNews
New Cambridge spin-out company commercialises disruptive technology that enables rapid generation of pure and consistent batches of human cell types. Geographically diversified, top-tier investor team includes key industry leaders to support early company development.READ MORE
Study: Non-fearful social withdrawal linked positively to creativityNews
Newly published research by a University at Buffalo psychologist suggests that not all forms of social withdrawal are detrimental.READ MORE