This Week on NeuroScientistNews: 31 August – 4 September
News Sep 04, 2015
Circuit formation in the brain; a new type of prion protein; food cravings, and more.
Catapulting human intelligence above all other creatures is the highly precise formation of neuronal circuits in the cerebral cortex. This is not an easy feat since an estimated 16 billion molecularly distinct neurons are packed within the cerebral cortex. The nature of the connections between these neurons is largely unknown. In fact, President Barack Obama launched the Human Connectome Project in 2009 to map the entire brain circuitry and shed light into the brain’s “impenetrable jungles”.
Researchers using fMRI have found that even first-episode psychotic patients process information differently from a control group. To ensure both groups experienced the same brain stimuli, the measurements were taken while the subjects watched a movie, Tim Burton’s Alice in Wonderland. The work is being presented at the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology conference in Amsterdam.
Brain imaging shows that testosterone therapy given as part of sex reassignment changes the brain structures and the pathway associated with speech and verbal fluency. This result supports research that women in general may deal with speech and interaction differently than men.
Multiple system atrophy, a neurodegenerative disorder with similarities to Parkinson's disease, is caused by a newly discovered type of prion, akin to the misfolded proteins involved in incurable progressive brain diseases such Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, according to two new research papers led by scientists at the University of California, San Francisco
An international group of researchers have found that food craving activates different brain networks between obese and normal weight patients. This indicates that the tendency to want food may be 'hard-wired' into the brain of overweight patients, becoming a functional brain biomarker. The work is being presented at the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology conference in Amsterdam
Adult depression has long been associated with shrinkage of the hippocampus, a brain region that plays an important role in memory and response to stress. Now, new research has linked participation in team sports to larger hippocampal volumes in children and less depression in boys ages 9 to 11.
Researchers have discovered a brain process common to sleep and ageing in research that could pave the way for new treatments for insomnia. The scientists report how oxidative stress leads to sleep. Oxidative stress is also believed to be a reason why we age and a cause of degenerative diseases.READ MORE
Patients in a new Northwestern Medicine study were able to comprehend words that were written but not said aloud. They could write the names of things they saw but not verbalize them. This provides an insight into the brain degeneration that defines the rare dementia termed primary progressive aphasia.