Bruno Dubois, Howard H Feldman, Claudia Jacova, Harald Hampel, José Luis Molinuevo, Kaj Blennow, Steven T DeKosky, Serge Gauthier, Dennis Selkoe, Randall Bateman, Stefano Cappa, Sebastian Crutch, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Giovanni B Frisoni, Nick C Fox, Douglas Galasko, Marie-Odile Habert, Gregory A Jicha, Agneta Nordberg, Florence Pasquier, Gil Rabinovici, Philippe Robert, Christopher Rowe, Stephen Salloway, Marie Sarazin, Stéphane Epelbaum, Leonardo C de Souza, Bruno Vellas, Pieter J Visser, Lon Schneider, Yaakov Stern, Philip Scheltens, Jeffrey L Cummings.
The Lancet Neurology
Summary: In the past 8 years, both the International Working Group (IWG) and the US National Institute on Aging—Alzheimer's Association have contributed criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that better define clinical phenotypes and integrate biomarkers into the diagnostic process, covering the full staging of the disease. This Position Paper considers the strengths and limitations of the IWG research diagnostic criteria and proposes advances to improve the diagnostic framework. On the basis of these refinements, the diagnosis of AD can be simplified, requiring the presence of an appropriate clinical AD phenotype (typical or atypical) and a pathophysiological biomarker consistent with the presence of Alzheimer's pathology. We propose that downstream topographical biomarkers of the disease, such as volumetric MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose PET, might better serve in the measurement and monitoring of the course of disease. This paper also elaborates on the specific diagnostic criteria for atypical forms of AD, for mixed AD, and for the preclinical states of AD.