The pandemic has ushered in a vaccines “golden era”. Long-term investment in vaccine manufacturing has been prioritized, as has the pursuit of novel vaccine platforms. In this infographic, we explore recent advances in vaccine research and development.
Download this infographic to learn more about:
• The importance of immunization as a public health strategy
• The utility of multiomics in vaccine research and development
• Emerging approaches for vaccine delivery
mRNA technology is
highly adaptable, and
can be modified quickly to
target different pathogens.
In the event of a public
health emergency, this
can enable rapid vaccine
development as the manufacturing
AI can help developers to
identify regions with low
vaccine uptake. Utilizing
this data, educational
campaigns can be targeted
to those regions to increase
of a virus
T- and B-cell
AI tools can accelerate the
identification of potential
antigens and predict
effectiveness. A typical
workflow utilizing AI might
look like this:
mRNA vaccines do not
use live virus particles,
reducing the likelihood
of adverse reactions to
As the target protein is
produced by the cell’s own
of both humoral and
cellular immune responses
can require growing a
virus in the lab, which
is time-consuming. For
mRNA vaccines, this is not
VACCINES AT A GLANCE
Vaccines are considered to be one of the greatest public health achievements
by the World Health Organization (WHO). Across the planet, these biological
preparations protect millions of lives from once-deadly diseases every day.
This infographic highlights the remarkable advances in vaccine research and
development that have transformed the world of immunization.
annual deaths are
prevented by childhood
deaths will be prevented
due to immunization*
lives will be saved
safe and effective
*according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Development Vaccine Research &
The COVID-19 global pandemic has ushered in a vaccines “golden era”. Long-term investment in vaccine
manufacturing has been prioritized, as has the pursuit of novel vaccine platforms. Let’s take a look at
some of the most recent advances across vaccine design, development, manufacturing and distribution.
Multiomics in Vaccine
research & development
Study of the interactions, function, composition and
structures of proteins and their cellular activities.
The study of the
genes in DNA,
their function and
their influence on
the cells, tissues
Study of epigenetic modifications on the
genetic material of a cell.
Study of the secretome, all
the secreted proteins of a
cell, tissue or organism.
Identifies, catalogs and
characterizes proteins that
Study of the lipidome pathways and networks of
cellular lipids in biological systems.
Study of chemical processes
involving metabolites, the small
molecule substrates, intermediates
and products of cell metabolism.
Study of the entire set of RNA
transcripts that are produced by
the genome at a given moment in
a cell, tissue or organism.
Next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry (MS) and other high-throughput approaches are
enabling scientists to collect multiomics data on a large scale, building comprehensive and systematic
pictures of biological processes – including human disease.
Examples of delivery methods being explored are:
mRNA vaccines carry several advantages over other approaches, such as:
Since the first mRNA vaccine was authorized for human use in the global
pandemic, mRNA vaccine development continues to thrive. Examples of recent
Multiomics data is facilitating the vaccine
design process, where reverse vaccinology
is considered a proficient and cost-effective
approach. Reverse vaccinology involves
screening a pathogenic genome to identify
genes that are associated with promising vaccine
targets, such as outer membrane proteins.
Pinpointing the biological mechanisms that
underly strong humoral and cell-mediated
immune responses can support the development
of material platforms capable of spatially
and temporally controlling the interaction of
vaccine components with immune cells.
To design safe and effective vaccines against
challenging pathogens, a comprehensive
understanding of how the immune system –
and other biological processes – develop
and respond to pathogens is paramount,
particularly in vulnerable
populations. The plasma
proteome has been used
to successfully characterize
the trajectory of
the newborn immune
system during the
first week of life, for
Systems vaccinology uses omics data
to understand the complex mechanisms
that occur when an immune response is
prompted by a vaccine.
Multiomics methods were used
to characterize temporal
molecular responses following
vaccination with hepatitis
B virus (HBV) vaccine.
The results show that
of an individual’s
system can influence
Vaccine design Vaccine delivery
Host response to Vaccine immune profiling
Earlier generations of vaccines were based on toxoids (inactivated toxins) or whole microorganisms
(in an alive or inactivated form).
Novel candidates are “minimalistic” in comparison; they either comprise a piece of a pathogen or
genetic material that encodes a protein from the pathogen to illict an immune response.
Let’s take a closer look at mRNA vaccines.
Uses a dead form of
a pathogen that has
heat or radiation.
The sequence corresponding
to the mRNA
is inserted into a plasmid
within a cell. The
plasmid is placed in a
reactor where enzymatic
reactions trigger the
synthesis of the mRNA.
The mRNA encoding a
specific antigen of the
infectious pathogen is
created from a DNA template.
This DNA sequence
can be shared globally
systems in an instant.
The mRNA is then
purified through methods
such as chromatography
to remove enzymes,
and defective mRNA.
as mRNA is unstable,
scientists are working
on various methods to
encapsulate it for
delivery into the body.
acid (mRNA) encoding
a particular viral protein
production of the protein
in the recipient’s cells.
A certain piece of pathogen,
such as a sugar protein or
capsid, is used to generate an
A toxin produced
by the pathogen
that causes a
disease is used.
A weakened form
of the antigen that
causes a disease is
used to generate an
Naked mRNAs Dendritic cell-based
Artificial intelligence (AI) has had a substantial impact on vaccine development
in a short period of time.
future advances in
Several countries have made public announcements pledging to expand their domestic vaccine
production capabilities. But how do we manufacture and distribute safe vaccines faster?
Let’s explore some options.
Developing a versatile foundational
framework that can be adapted as required
to generate new vaccines for related viruses.
To further optimize large-scale viral vaccine
production, the industry must embrace:
• new approaches to optimize cell
• new cell culture schemes
• more efficient and safer cell lines
• progress of automation technology
Enhancing the precision
and consistency of cell
In 2022, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) announced
that ~$17.5 million will be made available to vaccine developers and tech
companies working on innovations to support temperature-stable vaccines for use
in low- and middle-income countries.
Ensuring vaccine stability during the cold
chain process has been a major challenge
historically, particularly in resource-limited
settings. Recent strides in thermostable
vaccine technology have led to the creation
of vaccines that remain potent even at higher
temperatures, reducing waste and enabling
broader distribution to remote regions.
Nanotechnology has opened up new possibilities
for vaccine delivery. Nanoparticles
can act as carriers, effectively transporting
vaccine components to specific cells or
tissues, enhancing the vaccine’s effectiveness.
Vaccine-containing microarray patch
(VMAPs), an alternative to intramuscular and
subcutaenous immunization approaches, are
currently in development. VMAPS offer
several advantages, including enhanced
safety during administration, reduced reliance
on cold chains, facilitating simpler
storage and transportation and eliminating
the risks associated with needle waste.
An mRNA-based vaccine
to induce liver tissueresident
memory T cells
has shown promise against
parasite Plasmodium in
have been made to
regulatory bodies for an
mRNA vaccine to prevent
respiratory tract disease.
Late-stage trials are
commencing to test
vaccines for skin cancer,
in combination with
The success of clinical
trials can be supported
using AI by assisting with
diversity and retainment.
This data can support vaccine development at various stages of the pipeline.
Manufacturer National storage
Heath center Vaccination
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