Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Assay by High-Throughput Direct Cell Counting in Microplates using Fluorescence-Based Image Cytometry
Poster Mar 06, 2015
Leo L. Chan, Srinivas S. Somanchi, Kelsey J. Rosbach, and Dean A. Lee.
Cytotoxicity assays play a central role in studying the function of immune effector cells such as cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. Traditionally, cytotoxicity assays have been performed using
51Chromium (51Cr) and Calcein release assays. The assays involve labeling tumor cells (target) with radioisotope or fluorescent dyes, when the target cells are subjected to cytolysis by CTLs or NK cells (effector), they releases the entrapped labels into the media upon lysis. The amount of labels in the media is measured to determine the level of cytotoxicity the effectors have induced. These traditional methods may generate inconsistent results due to low sensitivity caused by poor loading efficiency and high spontaneous release of the reagents. In addition, measuring radioactivity or fluorescent labels released in supernatant is an indirect method for analysis. In this work, we demonstrate a novel high throughput cytotoxicity detection assay using the Celigo imaging cytometry method. Utilizing imaging cytometry, direct cell counting of live fluorescent target cells can be performed, which is a direct method for assessment of cytotoxicity. Human NK cells from one healthy donor were used as effectors, and K562 (suspension) and IMR32 (adherent) were used as the target cells. Both target cells were first stained with Calcein AM, and seeded at 10,000 cells/well in a standard 96-well microplate. The donor NK cells were then added to each well at Effector-to-Target (E:T) ratios 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, 1.25:1, 0.625:1, and 0.3125:1. The 96 well plate was then scanned and analyzed using Celigo Imaging Cytometer at t = 1, 2, 3, and 4 h to measure the % lysis of target cells. The results showed increasing % lysis as incubation time and E:T ratio increased. The propose Celigo Imaging Cytometry is an accurate and simple method for direct quantification of cytotoxicity, which can be an attractive method for both academic and clinical research.
Multiplexing cell-based assays is possible using 3D culture models that are larger and more complex than monolayers
Real-time detection methods to measure live or dead cells provide much flexibility for multiplexing
All multiplexed assay combinations should be verified using appropriate controls for each 3D cell culture model.
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is widely used in vitro for the maintenance and stimulation of a variety of cells. However, use of native bFGF in cell biology is limited by the fact that bFGF rapidly degrades at physiological temperatures. We have addressed this problem with an engineered form of bFGF, named Heat Stable bFGF (HS bFGF), which is stable at 37 degrees Celsius.READ MORE