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Genetic progress in the Romanian triticale breeding program
Poster

Genetic progress in the Romanian triticale breeding program

Genetic progress in the Romanian triticale breeding program
Poster

Genetic progress in the Romanian triticale breeding program

Genetic progress in the Romanian triticale breeding program

Ittu Gheorghe*, Saulescu Nicolae, Ittu Mariana, Mustatea Pompiliu and Marinciu Cristina

National Agricultural Research & Development Institute- Fundulea, 915200, Romania

e-mail of corresponding author: gittu@ricic.ro

Abstract

Triticale is cultivated in Romania mainly on the hilly regions around Carpathian Mountains, on the acid soils, where covers about 1.5 million ha. Triticale is currently cultivated on 100 to 150 thousand ha, representing 1.5% from the total arable land. Since 1971 when the triticale breeding program has been initiated, 14 varieties have been registered. The Romanian triticale germplasm was developed based on (i) primary triticale, (ii) crosses with bread wheat and by germplasm exchanges with important foreigner programs in winter or spring types.
Genetic progress for yield estimated over 29 years since the first variety has been registered (1984), raised up to 43 kg / ha¹ and year¹ or 0.74 % /year¹, value more or less similar with those realized in others important triticale breeding programs in the world. Yield enhancement has been achieved mainly by: improving fertility of spikes, plumpness of kernel, the test weight and introduction of short straw RhtB1b (Rht1) and Ddw1 (Hl) genes. Following the long term selection pressure under artificial conditions, for biotic and abiotic stresses, yield stability of the new released varieties over a large variability of environments increase constantly. As result of the continuous pressure of selection for resistance to leaf rust, septoria leaf blotch, Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most frequent and most damaging diseases under climate conditions of Romania, a triticale germplasm with higher level of resistance has been developed. Most of recently registered varieties possess mainly partial resistance against leaf rust, while resistance to BYDY it is conferred by at least two sources of resistance. Regarding FHB there is a good level of resistance Type II (spreading of disease into spikes), but in contrast to wheat not closely related with accumulation of associated toxic compounds (mycotoxins) in kernels that could be more frequent rather high and a real threat to food safety.



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