Identifying Molecular Signatures of Tumors Using Novel Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Networks
Poster Oct 07, 2014
Vishwa Nellore, Chris Dwyer
Fluorescence microscopy is one of the most widely used assays in biological systems. However, the technique suffers from limited multiplexing capability with previous attempts at detecting more than 11 fluorophores simultaneously resulting in barcodes that are too big for in vivo analysis, expensive and involve time-consuming detection schemes. Here, we introduce large DNA self-assembled FRET circuits that provide a unique, unpredictable optical output when probed by a series of light pulses. Markov and entropy modeling of the FRET sensors show that 125 fluorophores can be observed simultaneously. Furthermore, experimental analyses of over 1200 time-resolved fluorescence signatures on 300 prototypical circuits show that the optical responses are highly repeatable and minor variations between FRET networks can be discriminated resulting in a total of 10^375 unique responses. This increase in spatial information density enabled by FRET networks allowed us to identify molecular signatures in lung and breast cancer tumors.
It is now known that the presence of aberrant DNA/RNA secondary structure in the regulatory regions of genes involved in cell proliferation, cells growth and apoptosis can lead to cancer. The FRET sensor we designed, self-assembles DNA probes labeled with acceptor fluorophores to the target DNA/RNA secondary structure forming an optical network. A DNA strand labeled with a donor fluorophore triplex binds to a unique sequence adjacent to the secondary structure. When the donor fluorophore is excited, the optical network results in a different optical signal based on the presence of the wild type or the aberrant secondary structure, through which we identified lung and breast cancer cells with high specificity. Furthermore, the probe DNA strands may be loaded with cargo, such as photosensitizers, for therapy. The small size of fluorophores results in molecular scale spatial resolution while the optical sensing mechanism enables the in vitro and in vivo characterization of the structure at picosecond resolution.
T-helper cell phenotype expression in cutaneous lesions of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomaPoster
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a common type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. AITL can be missed until lymphadenopathy develops in patients initially presenting with skin lesions, as skin biopsy may lack conclusive findings. Our case highlights the extranodal presentation of AITL with cutaneous lesions displaying the TFH phenotype.READ MORE
Regulatory T-Cells (Tregs) Within Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells (BMSCs) Actively Confer Immunomodulatory and Neuroprotective Effects Against StrokePoster
We found a distinct subpopulation of Tregs within BMSCs. Tregs and BMSCs in co-culture conferred neuroprotection that varied in a dose-dependent manner. Tregs minimized stem cell production of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and inhibited BMSC secretion of FGF-beta, a cytokine related to BMSC proliferation and differentiation. The ratio of Tregs found natively in BMSCs is optimally adapted to provide the maximum neuroprotective benefit of stem cell treatment after ischemic stroke.READ MORE
Novel Role of the Innate Immune DNA Sensor IFI16 (Interferon Gamma Inducible Protein 16) as a Major Epigenetic Modulator During KSHV Infection and Lytic ReactivationPoster
Studies have shown that IFI16 acts as an antiviral restriction factor against a number of DNA viruses, by inhibiting viral replication or transcription through epigenetic modifications. However, till date, no specific epigenetic function of IFI16 has been identified. Here, we have discovered that IFI16 recruits two histone methyltransferases on the KSHV episome leading to altered Histone H3K9 methylation, thus regulating its lifecycle.READ MORE